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EndNote: 1. Groups

A guide to using EndNote X9 & X8 with some help for X7 & X6


Right click on My Groups or individual Groups to bring up several options such as:

  • Create Group, Create Group Set, Create Smart Group
  • Rename Group, Rename Group Set
  • Delete Group, Delete Group Set

Using Groups

Groups  groups

The Groups feature in EndNote enables you to organise your library without resorting to the creation of multiple libraries. References can belong to several different Groups or be deleted from a group while always remaining available in All References. Groups can be renamed or deleted. Several Groups can be merged into one new Group. Group Sets can be formed. All of the Groups will appear on the left panel under My Library.

1. Use Custom Groups to manually group references     tip

  • Select Groups > Create Group.
  • Enter a name for the group.
  • Click on All References to view the references in your library. Highlight references you wish to add to the Group ( use the Ctrl key to select multiple references).  
  • Select Groups > Add References to > Group name.

2. Use Group Sets to organise your numerous groups

  • Select Groups > Create Group Set OR right click on My Groups > Create Group Set.
  • Enter a name for the Group Set.
  • To create new groups under the Group Set : right click on the Group Set, select Create Group and enter a name.
  • To add existing groups to the Group Set left click on a group and drag to the Group Set.

3. Use Smart Groups to automatically add references to a group with specific criteria

  • Select Groups > Create Smart Group.
  • A search box will appear. Enter a name in the Smart Group Name box.
  • Enter criteria for your search using the drop-down menus and text boxes.
  • Click Create.
  • A new Group will appear under My Groups in the left panel.
  • Smart Groups are denoted by   
  • Every new reference added to your library will automatically be added to the Smart Group if it meets the criteria you set.  case

Changing the case in a field

Changing fields

EndNote will allow you to change the case of a particular field in all the references showing in the library window:

  • Choose the group of references you wish to alter globally (this can be Imported References, All References or any group you have created).
  • Go to Tools >  Change/Move/Copy Fields...
  • A dialog box will open.


  • Select the field you want to change e.g. Title
  • Select Change case & use the drop down menu to choose from Sentence case; lowercase; UPPERCASE; Capitalize Each Word; tOGGLE cASE; Headline Case.  
  • Click OK.                         

Note: the change will apply to all references in the selected group (i.e. that appear in the library window). It is recommended that you make a back-up copy of your library before making such changes.